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為什麽要發展生物質顆粒機能

來源:admin 發布時間:2016-11-03 16:32 瀏覽次數:
加快發展風能、太陽能、生物質顆粒機能、水能、地熱能,安全高效發展核電”。其中,生物質顆粒機能是以農林等有機廢棄物和邊際性土地種植的能源植物為原料,生產的綠色能源。生物質顆粒機能具有資源豐富、可再生、清潔環保、低碳排放、儲存和運輸便利等特點,並且與“三農”關係緊密。在我國,大力發展生物質顆粒機能意義重大。
Speed up the development of wind, solar, biomass pellet function, hydropower, geothermal energy, safe and efficient development of nuclear power ". Among them, the function of biomass particles in agriculture and forestry and marginal land to grow organic wastes such as energy plant as raw material, production of green energy. Biomass granule function has rich resources, renewable, clean environmental protection, low carbon, storage and transportation is convenient wait for a characteristic, and the close relationship with "three agriculture". In our country, develop the function of biomass particles is of great significance.
黨的十八屆五中全會提出,“加快發展風能、太陽能、生物質顆粒機能、水能、地熱能,安全高效發展核電”。其中,生物質顆粒機能是以農林等有機廢棄物和邊際性土地種植的能源植物為原料,生產的綠色能源。生物質顆粒機能具有資源豐富、可再生、清潔環保、低碳排放、儲存和運輸便利等特點,並且與“三農”關係緊密。在我國,大力發展生物質顆粒機能意義重大。
The fifth plenary session of the party's 18, "speed up the development of wind, solar, biomass pellet function, hydropower, geothermal energy, safe and efficient development of nuclear power". Among them, the function of biomass particles in agriculture and forestry and other organic waste and marginal land to grow energy plant as raw material, production of green energy. Function of biomass granule has rich resources, renewable, clean environmental protection, low carbon, storage and transportation is convenient wait for a characteristic, and the close relationship with "three agriculture". In our country, develop the function of biomass particles is of great significance.
  一、生物質顆粒機能具有極佳的環境效益與經濟效益
A, the function of biomass granule has good environmental benefits and economic benefits
  露地焚燒秸稈屢禁不止,成為當今霧霾的季節性主要來源之一 ;畜禽糞便濫排,成為水體與大氣的重要汙染源 ;林業采伐、造材、加工剩餘物大量積存,成為森林火災與病蟲害之隱患……生物質顆粒機產業可以使這些有機“廢棄物”和“汙染源”在無害化和資源化過程中,轉化生產出高端綠色能源與材料,為現代農業和農民增收開辟一片新天地。
The outdoor burning straw, become the main source of seasonal fog today; Livestock and poultry dung has erected, become an important pollution source of water and atmospheric; Forest logging, building materials, processing residue piling up, become a hidden danger of forest fires and plant diseases and insect pests... Biomass pellet machine industry can make these organic "waste" and "pollution" in the process of harmless and resource recovery, the conversion to produce high-end green energy and materials, for the modern agriculture and increasing farmers' income, set up a new land.
  當今環保,以減排和克霾為重。相比燃煤發電,生物質顆粒機發電優勢明顯。生物質顆粒機固體燃料低灰低硫,氮氧化物、二氧化硫、二氧化碳以及煙塵顆粒的排放遠低於燃煤發電。據統計,截至 2013年底,全國已有 28個省市自治區開發了生物質顆粒機發電項目,累計核準容量 1.2萬兆瓦,上網電量 356億千瓦時。生物質顆粒機發電集中於我國農業和經濟發達的東部地區,蘇魯粵浙四省上網電量就占到全國的 48%。
Today's environmental protection to mitigation and grams haze. Compared to coal, biomass pellet machine power generation. Biomass pellet machine solid fuel low ash low sulfur, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and soot particle emissions is far less than coal-fired power generation. According to statistics, by the end of 2013, the country has 28 provinces and autonomous regions to develop the biomass pellet machine power generation project, approved the cumulative capacity of 12000 megawatts, Internet power 35.6 billion KWH. Biomass pellet machine power concentrated in the east of China agricultural and economic developed area, the dabie-sulu four provinces of guangdong and zhejiang power will account for 48% of the country on the Internet.
  減排克霾的難點是全國 50餘萬台 20噸位以下的中小燃煤鍋爐。它們難以清潔燃燒,高度分散於城鎮,體小量大,年耗標準煤 2.7億噸,排放煙塵 60萬噸、二氧化硫 226萬噸、氮氧化物 100 萬噸。“煤改氣”當然好,但是“氣”源極缺,成本又高。如果把這些鍋爐改造後使用生物質顆粒機成型燃料,那就會呈現另一種景象。生物質顆粒機成型燃料供熱排放的煙塵、二氧化硫和氮氧化物基本同於天然氣排放標準,供熱價格雖稍高於當前煤炭,也僅為天然氣的 60% 和重油的 70%。同時,采用成型燃料供熱,還可以消耗千萬噸級的作物秸稈,創造眾多工作崗位,增加農民收入。
Grams haze of the difficulties is the country more than 50 ten thousand sets of below 20 tonnage of middle and small coal-fired boiler. They are difficult to clean combustion, high dispersion in urban, body small, year 270 million tons of standard coal consumption, emission of smoke 600000 tons of 600000 tons, 2.26 million tons of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. "Coal to gas" and of course good, but the "gas" the source, and high cost. If the boiler modified using biomass pellet machine molding fuel, it will present another scene. Biomass pellet fuel heating machine molding emissions of soot, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide gas emissions standards, the same heating prices are slightly higher than the current coal, and only 60% of the 60% of the natural gas and heavy fuel oil. At the same time, adopt the molding fuel heating, also can use thousand tons crop straw, create many jobs, increase farmers' income.
畜禽糞便、加工業的有機廢水廢渣等高含水量有機汙染源是環保治理的重點,最好的辦法就是沼氣化,轉汙為能。沼氣化即在厭氧條件下經微生物作用使之無害化,產生含甲烷約 60% 的沼氣,也可淨化提純為甲烷含量達 80% 或 95% 以上、品質同於普通天然氣的生物天然氣(BNG)。
Organic wastewater of poultry and animal feces, processing industry waste residues such as water content of organic pollution is the focus of environmental management, the best thing to do is methane, turn to. Biogas, namely under anaerobic conditions by the microbial action make it harmless, methane which was produced from about 60% of the biogas, also can purify purification for methane content of 80% or more than 80%, the quality the same as ordinary gas biological gas (BNG).
  生物天然氣可並入普通天然氣管網,也可生成壓縮態的車用燃料。據有關資料,每立方米生物天然氣比 1升汽油可多驅動汽車行駛15%的裏程,售價僅為汽油的 85%— 90% ;尾氣中的有害氣體排放量僅為汽油的 10% ~ 50%。2012 年,歐洲的沼氣工廠有 13800 多家,生產生物天然氣約 140億立方米。德國自 1999年到 2009年的 10年間,生物燃氣工廠由 850 個增加到 4780 個,裝機容量由 49兆瓦發展到 1600兆瓦,超過了水電。
Creatures can be incorporated into the common natural gas pipeline network, natural gas can also generate squeezed state of vehicle fuel. According to relevant data, per cubic meter of biological gas can be more than 1 liter of gasoline to drive the car mileage, 15% gasoline costs a mere 85% - 85%; Only for gasoline exhaust the harmful gas emissions of 10% ~ 50%. In 2012, the European biogas plant more than 13800, the production of about 14 billion cubic meters of natural gas. Germany from 1999 to 1999, 10 years, bio-gas plants increased from 850 to 850, the installed capacity by 49 mw to 1600 mw, over the water and electricity.
  我國一直重視發展農村戶用沼氣,近年來才開始促進沼氣產業化, 2011年 3月才在廣西以澱粉廠高濃度有機廢水為原料完成了國內第一個日產1萬立方米以上的生物天然氣生產。北京德青源和山東民和兩家大型養殖場分別日產 2萬和 3萬立方米沼氣。河南天冠酒精廠日產沼氣 30萬立方米,主要用於農村供熱。 2015年環保部和國家能源局聯合開展了內蒙古生物天然氣示範區建設。我國生物天然氣迎來了發展的春天。
China has always attached great importance to developing the rural household biogas, in recent years to promote the industrialization of methane, in March 2011 to starch factory in guangxi high concentration organic wastewater as raw material to finished the domestic first nissan more than 10000 cubic meters of natural gas production. Beijing green source and shandong and two large farms nissan 2 and 30000 cubic meters of methane gas, respectively. Henan day crown biogas alcohol plant nissan 300000 cubic meters, it is mainly used for heating in the countryside. In 2015, the ministry and the national energy administration carried out biological gas demonstration area construction in Inner Mongolia. Our country the development of biological gas in the spring.
  據中國工程院 2014年資料,2009年我國規模化養殖畜禽糞便排放總量約 8.37 億噸,具有 470 億立方米的沼氣生產潛力。如果以 1:2的比例配以秸稈等其它有機廢棄物,則具有年產 1000億立方米以上的生物天然氣生產潛力,相當於 2018年開始由俄羅斯進口天然氣量的 3倍。
According to 2014 data from the Chinese academy of engineering, 2009, our country mass breeding livestock and poultry manure emissions about 837 million tons, with 47 billion cubic meters of methane production potential. If in a ratio of 1:2 matched with straw and other organic wastes, are with annual output of more than 100 billion cubic meters of natural gas production potential, the equivalent of 2018 started by three times the amount of Russian gas imports.
  此外,生物質顆粒機諸能源品種的生產和消費過程都是低碳的,沼氣與生物天然氣生產過程更是負碳,而且能使植物營養物質最大限度地回歸土壤,在變廢為寶的同時,還能夠解決農民的用能和增收問題。
In addition, biomass pellet machine all the varieties of energy production and consumption process is low carbon, methane gas production process and biological carbon negative, and can make the plant nutrients to maximize the return to the soil, at the same time of waste, can also solve the problem of can use and income of farmers.
二、技術的突破促使生物質顆粒機能再現生機
Second, the technical breakthrough biomass granule function life again
  水能、風能、太陽能以至核能等隻能產生電與熱AG8,而生物質顆粒機既產電與熱,更有固、氣、液三態綠色能源以及綠色材料與有機化工AG8,舉凡石化基AG8多能以生物基原料替代。在對化石能源的替代中,液態清潔燃料仍占主導地位。20世紀 70 年代全球石油危機期間,美歐和巴西在尋求替代能源中首先開發了以玉米和甘蔗等為原料的燃料乙醇,現全球年產達 8000萬噸。但隨著生產規模的擴大,與糧食供應之間的矛盾加深,在 2008年的全球糧食危機中倍受質疑。
Hydropower, wind energy, solar energy and nuclear energy, etc. Products can only generate electricity and heat, and the biomass pellet machine, electricity and heat production is more solid, gas and liquid state green energy and green materials and organic chemical products, such as petrochemical products can substitute their biomass feedstocks. In the alternative of fossil energy, clean liquid fuel is still dominant. Global oil crisis in the 1970 s, the us and Europe and Brazil in the search for alternative energy sources such as corn and sugar cane first developed the fuel ethanol as raw material, now the global annual output of 80 million tons. But with the expansion of production scale, and the contradiction between food supply, in 2008 the global food crisis in question.
  隨後,美歐等國開始研究以生物質顆粒機的纖維素為原料,用酶法生產纖維素乙醇,但久攻不克,至今生產成本未能達到商業化要求。近年在熱化學法上,即以木質纖維素為原料,合成優質生物燃油、航空煤油和潤滑油等烴類AG8和天然氣方麵取得了重要進展。這種方法大大拓展了生物能源的原料來源,降低了原料成本,也避免了燃料乙醇的原料製約與小摻比(10%)局限性,是生物質顆粒機科技史上一項裏程碑式的革命。令人興奮的是,我國已有企業在這項技術創新的製高點上走在了世界前列。
Then, the us and Europe and other countries began to study in biomass pellet machine cellulose as raw material, using enzymatic production of cellulosic ethanol, but long attack means, has failed to meet the requirements of commercial production cost. In recent years on the thermalization research method, namely using lignocellulose as raw materials, synthetic biological quality fuel oil, lubricating oil and aviation kerosene hydrocarbon products and natural gas has made important progress. This method has greatly expanded the biological energy sources of raw materials, reducing the costs of raw materials, also to avoid the fuel ethanol raw materials checks and small mixing ratio limitations (10%), biomass pellet machine is a milestone in the history of a revolution. Exciting is that the existing enterprises in our country on the commanding heights of the technology innovation in the top in the world.
  武漢陽光凱迪新能源集團有限公司一座以木質纖維素為原料的高端生物燃油示範生產線已連續運行 3 年,另兩座年產 30萬噸規模的生產廠正在建設,其技術水平居世界前列。此外,內蒙古金驕集團也以木質纖維素為原料,成功轉化出乙酰丙酸等重要的平台化合物中間體,可衍生出生物柴油、汽油、航空煤油等高端生物液體燃料,以及聯產多種生物基精細化工AG8,於 2009年和 2012年建成兩座年產能分別為 10萬噸和 8 萬噸的生產廠。這一項目投資額低、加工工序簡捷、生產過程綠色,是我國的一項獨創性成果。
Wuhan sunshine kaidi new energy group co., LTD. A high-end biofuels demonstration for raw material with lignocellulose production line has run three years in a row, the other two annual output of 300000 tons of the size of the factory is under construction, its technical level in the world. In addition, the Inner Mongolia gold arrogant group also with lignocellulose as raw material, successful transformation of the platform of levulinic acid and other important compounds intermediates, biodiesel can be derived and high-end biological liquid fuels such as gasoline, kerosene, and the range of a variety of biological chemical products, built in 2009 and 2009 two annual capacity of 100000 tons and 80000 tons respectively. The project investment is low, green machining process is simple, the production process, is one of our original achievements.
  以上兩項技術的突破,使得非糧的木質纖維素可以替代澱粉類和油脂類作為原料,生產高端的生物液體燃料,從而使我國大片沒有經濟產出的邊際性土地可以成為生物質顆粒機油氣田。據 2014年國土資源部基於縣級的土地調查資料,我國有宜林宜草的邊際性土地 16553萬公頃。也就是說,這是一片比全國總耕地麵積還大的、永不枯竭的綠色油氣田。
These two technical breakthrough, make plants grown lignocellulose can replace starch and oil as raw material, the production of high-end biological liquid fuels, thus make our country large no economic output of marginal land can become a biomass pellet machine oil and gas fields. According to the 2014 land survey data based on the county level by the ministry of land and resources, our country has increased appropriate grass marginal land area of 165.53 million hectares. That is to say, this is a is greater than the national total arable land area, never dried up the green fields.
  這兩項技術突破的環保意義在於,熱化學合成的生物燃料具有突出的減排與克霾功能。美國學者在 20 世紀 80年代開始柴油增氧添加劑的研究,證明在普通柴油中添加 15%— 20%的乙酰丙酸酯可使尾氣煙霧粒子減少 50% ~ 60%。但是,由於乙酰丙酸酯主要由葡萄糖或石油基產物轉化生產,量少價高,至今未能廣泛使用。目前我國在這項技術上實現了突破,已經能做到量大價廉以及以任何比例與普通柴油混配。這一成果在北京柴油車試用中對改善尾氣汙染效果很好,應廣而用之。
These two technologies breakthrough significance of environmental protection, thermal chemical synthesis of biofuels has prominent reduction and grams haze function. American scholars in the 1980 s began to oxygen increasing diesel additive research, in the ordinary diesel oil adding 15% - 20% of levulinic acid ester can be reduced by 50% ~ 60% for exhaust smoke particles. However, because of levulinic acid ester is mainly composed of glucose or petroleum-based products into production, less price is high, have been unable to widespread use. At present our country has realized the breakthrough on the technology, already can do large amount and low price, and in any proportion with ordinary diesel mixed. This results in diesel vehicles in Beijing to try to improve the exhaust pollution effect is very good, should be used widely.
  國際能源組織 2012 年報告稱,生物質顆粒機能是世界第四大能源,占世界可再生能源消費量的 78% ;提出為實現 2020年控製大氣升溫 2℃的目標,需提高生物燃料產量 1倍以上,其中先進生物燃料要求達到現產量的 6倍。在我國推進綠色發展的大背景下,生物質顆粒機能的開發利用可以說大有可為!
The international energy agency in 2012, according to the report function of biomass granule is the world's fourth largest energy, 78% of the world's renewable energy consumption; Put forward for the realization of the control air temperature 2 ℃ 2020 goal, needs to increase biofuel production more than 1 times, including six times that of the advanced biofuels requirements to production now. In our country, promoting the development of the green backdrop, the development and utilization of biomass granule function ", so to speak!

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